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Evidence of Tropical Climates Below the Ice ..... Page 18

"One of the remarkable features of the biblical revelation , when it is interpreted literally, is its internal consistency in recording past events that help to explain the present world. Nowhere is this consistency seen more clearly than in the ability of the worldwide Genesis Flood to provide the only adequate explanation for a great geological mystery: the Ice Age.

Few realize that the Genesis Flood and the Ice Age are intimately connected in terms of cause and effect. It was the severe disruption of the global climate by the Genesis Flood that caused the Ice Age to develop immediately afterward...

It would be natural to assume that all that is needed to produce an ice age is a series of very cold winters. Not so. In many areas of the world the winters are very cold; yet, these areas may have little snow. In contrast to our present climate, the two basic requirements for an ice age are (1) much cooler summers, and (2) much more snowfall. Probable contributing mechanisms would be warmer winters and warmer oceans.

This combination is an unlikely scenario, and the scientific community, limiting itself to present processes, has hard sledding in trying to account for the cause of the Ice Age. Over sixty theories have been proposed to explain the Ice Age, all with serious defects. However, from computer simulations and from what we know of atmospheric science, the Genesis Flood was capable of producing the Ice Age"....
Marvin L. Lubenow 'Bones of Contention', Baker Books, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1994, 146-149)

Arctic Was The Mediterranean Of Its Day
By Harvey McGavin
The Independent - UK 9-9-4

North Greenland Icecap. Source: Wesker. Click and drag photo to resize. Script from The Java Script Source

The ice-strewn strewn waters of the Arctic Ocean were once as warm as the Mediterranean Sea, an international scientific study has found.

The Arctic Coring Expedition (Acex) made the surprising discovery after extracting sediment from 400m below the seabed. Samples of fossilised algae showed that, 55 million years ago, the Arctic was a sub-tropical, shallow sea with an average temperature of about 20C.

Scientists from eight countries recovered the samples from waters 1300m deep on the Lomonosov Ridge which runs under the polar ice cap between Siberia and Greenland.

The tiny algal fossils, containing traces of marine plants and animals, dated back to the Palaeocene Eocene period, the warmest period in history in the history of the earth when huge amounts of carbon were released into the sea and atmosphere causing a supercharged greenhouse effect after which the planet gradually cooled.

Dr Michael Kaminski, a palaeontologist from University College London, said very few living things would have survived the conditions. He said: "We're seeing a mass extinction of sea-bottom-living organisms caused by these conditions. Moving forward in time, we see many species disappear. Only a few hardy survivors endure the thermal maximum."

Geologists already knew something about the last 250,000 years of Arctic history thanks to cores taken from the Greenland ice cap. But the six-week Acex expedition - which also set out to find how long the now-melting Arctic ice caps had been in existence - is the first to find evidence of conditions at the North Pole 55 million years ago.

Professor Jan Backman of Stockholm University, one of the two chief scientists of Acex, said: "We now have sediment records going back to 56 million years, which are resting on 80-million-year-old bedrock. The early history of the Arctic Basin will be re-evaluated based on the scientific results collected on this expedition."

The waters of the Arctic are today so cold - on average -1.5C - that the expedition employed three ice breakers - two to clear a path for the drill.

2004 Independent Digital (UK) Ltd. All rights reserved

Ancient Plants Likely Found in Two-Mile Deep Ice Core

A team of international researchers working on the North Greenland Ice Core Project recently recovered what appear to be plant remnants nearly two miles below the surface between the bottom of the glacial ice and the bedrock.

Researchers said particles found in clumps of reddish material recovered from the frozen, muddy ice in late July look like pine needles, bark or blades of grass. Thought to date to several million years ago before the last ice age during the Pleistocene epoch smothered Greenland, the material will be analyzed in several laboratories, said researchers. ''If confirmed, this will be the first organic material ever recovered from a deep ice-core drilling project.''

From University of Colorado:

Greenland ice core project yields probable ancient plant remains

A team of international researchers working on the North Greenland Ice Core Project recently recovered what appear to be plant remnants nearly two miles below the surface between the bottom of the glacial ice and the bedrock.

Researchers from the project, known as NGRIP, said particles found in clumps of reddish material recovered from the frozen, muddy ice in late July look like pine needles, bark or blades of grass. Thought to date to several million years ago before the last ice age during the Pleistocene epoch smothered Greenland, the material will be analyzed in several laboratories, said researchers.

The suspected plant material under about 10,400 feet of ice indicates the Greenland Ice Sheet ''formed very fast,'' said NGRIP project leader Dorthe Dahl-Jensen, a professor at the University of Copenhagen's Niels Bohr Institute. ''There is a big possibility that this material is several million years old -- from a time when trees covered Greenland,'' she said.

''Several of the pieces look very much like blades of grass or pine needles,'' said University of Colorado at Boulder geological sciences Professor James White, a NGRIP principal investigator. ''If confirmed, this will be the first organic material ever recovered from a deep ice-core drilling project,'' said White, also a fellow of CU-Boulder's Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research.

The ice cores in which the reddish material was found also contain a high content of trapped gas, which is expected to help researchers determine what the area's climate history was like on an annual basis during the past 123,000 years.

Each yearly record of ice can reveal past temperatures and precipitation levels, the content of ancient atmospheres and even evidence for the timing, direction and magnitude of distant storms, fires and volcanic eruptions, said White.

NGRIP is an international project with participants from Denmark, Germany, Japan, the United States, Switzerland, France, Sweden, Belgium and Iceland. NGRIP is funded by the participating countries, including the U.S. National Science Foundation.

The cores from NGRIP are cylinders of ice four inches in diameter that were brought to the surface in 11.5-foot lengths. Developed by the NGRIP research team, the specialized deep ice drill has been used to bore several deep ice cores.

The NGRIP drilling site is located roughly in the middle of Greenland at an elevation of about 9,850 feet. The temperature in the subsurface trenches where ice-core scientists worked is minus 22 degrees Fahrenheit.

CU-Boulder doctoral student Trevor Popp of INSTAAR was the lead driller on the 2004 NGRIP effort. Another CU-Boulder graduate student, Annalisa Schilla, also participated in the 2004 NGRIP field season.

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